Phonologically, the Urdu sounds are the same as those of Hindi except for slight variations in short vowel allophones. 1988. This mixed speech was variously called Hindvi, Zaban-e-Hind, Hindi, Zaban-e-Delhi, Rekhta, Gujari, Dakkhani, Zaban-e-Urdu-e-Mualla, Zaban-e-Urdu, or just Urdu, literally ‘the language of the camp.’ Major Urdu writers continued to refer to it as Hindi or Hindvi until the beginning of the 19th century, although there is evidence that it was called Hindustani in the late 17th century. Urdu language, member of the Indo-Aryan group within the Indo-European family of languages. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Urdu-language. It is the official state language of Pakistan and is also officially recognized, or “scheduled,” in the constitution of India. 4. Thus, the language used among them was directly affected. What is the old name of Urdu language. Sind Sagar Academy. Urdu is no exception, as it also underwent various stages of development. Today, what we call the modern standardized form of Urdu can trace 75% of its etymological roots to Sanskrit and at least 25% of its vocabulary was included from Arabic (the language of the Quran) Although the word Urdu is derive… Soon people began to use the new language in their speech and in the literature that resulted in the enrichment of the Urdu language and literature. The third theory regarding the origin of Urdu language has been offered by Dr. Masud Husain of Aligarh. "A form of Hindu … This was the time when Urdu had become persistent and enriched with Persian words, phrases, and even scripts and grammar. Urdu emerged as a different language after 1193 AD, the time of the Muslim conquest. One sound in the stops category, the glottal /q/, has also been retained from Perso-Arabic. So, in 1867 they gathered in Banaras and created a language called Hindi which is nothing more that Urdu written in Sanskrit script. Mirza Khalil Ahmad Beg. History of the Origin of the Arabic Language and Its…, ITunes is one of the greatest benefits obtained when…, Origin of life - Redi and Pasteur experiments. Urdu has its origin in Turkic invasion and settlement of Punjab whether you like it or not. Lahore. Bahri Publications. There are two major theories with reference to the origin of Urdu. Official language of Moghuls was Persian, logically this was written in Persian script. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Urdu is a modern Indian Language. A history of Urdu literature. One of the first most eminent poets to make use of Urdu in his poetry is Amir Khusro, who can be called the father of the Urdu language. There are several Urdu and Hindi words in English you may use often: even today! The language obviously mixed with whatever native dialect was spoken in Punjab at the time, and it went by tons of names, but that's the actual origin. The origin of Urdu language had taken place in India several centuries back and the names of three places-all in India- are quoted in the … After the conquest of Delhi by the Muslims, the Persian element was grafted which resulted to the existence of Urdu language. Urdu developed in the 12th century ce from the regional Apabhramsha of northwestern India, serving as a linguistic modus vivendi after the Muslim conquest. Unlike our first language, it is learnt primarily as a written phenomenon. In literature, Urdu was generally used in conjunction with Persian. Urdu came to be evolved in Military camps and in … Urdu started developing in north India around Delhi in about the 12th century. Same rule goes with the English language which borrowed many words from different languages such as German, Latin, Spanish, Hindi, Sanskrit, Urdu, and Persian. Although both Urdu and Hindi typically mark the plural by changing the singular suffix -aa to -ee, Urdu uses -aat in some cases, such as kaagazaat ‘papers,’ jawaharaat ‘jewels,’ and makaanaat ‘houses.’ In addition, where Hindi and Urdu both use the suffix -ka ‘of’ in many constructions, Urdu marks the genitive ‘of’ with -e(e), as in subhe-azadi ‘the morning of freedom’ and khoon-e-jigar ‘the blood of heart.’. Assalamulalikum.The above video is about the origins of language. and the Nastaliq calligraphic writing style. Muhammad Husain Azad maintains that Brij Bhasha, a dialect of Western Hindi, is the basic language. Omissions? In fact, the use of the two terms to refer to two distinct languages has no precedent prior to the 18th century. The Urdu term derives from a Turkish word ordu which means camp or army. With the arrival of Darya-e-Latafat * from Insha, the need was felt to differentiate Urdu from other languages, especially Hindi. The term ‘Urdu’ and its origin. Currently, the Urdu vocabulary contains approximately 70% of the Persian words and the rest are a mix of Arabic and Turkish words. Origin of Urdu Language. In this article the origin of Urdu, its evolution and its status as national language of Pakistan are discussed in detailed. The closest language to Urdu is Hindi. The original language of Mughals was Chagatai, a Turkic language but when they come to subcontinent the stated adopting Persian Language. 1975. Urdu, by its origin, is considered a descendant of Saur Senic Prakrit. London. Their distinction is most marked in terms of writing systems: Urdu uses a modified form of Perso-Arabic script known as Nastaliq (nastaÊ¿lÄ«q), while Hindi uses Devanagari. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). It is for this reason that Urdu is also known as Lashkari Zaban or the language of the army. Updates? The Muslims in that province spoke Farsi (Persian) in there courts , while the Non-Muslims spoke their own dialect and sub-languages in different regions. Urdu was used later for literature and at present is the mother tongue of most Indian Muslims and their brethren in Pakistan. These soldiers lived in close contact with each other and communicated in different dialects, which evolved slowly and gradually until today Urdu. But later on, Hindus felt that Urdu is getting very popular and the script of Urdu is a foreign script. Theories of Urdu’s Origin: ‘Urdu’ is synonymous to Pakistan, yet it is a mistake to think that it was created with it. Both Urdu and Hindi, which are considered standard registers of the same language, Hindustani (or Hindi-Urdu) share a core vocabulary and grammar. As a result of political, social and cultural contacts between people of different speech and dialects, a mixed form of language called ‘Rekhta’ was formed (Urdu and Persian in mixed form). The Urdu language developed between the Muslim soldiers of the Mughals armies who belonged Origin of Urdu Language Here is a learned article on the subject which sums up the origin and evolution of Urdu very well. 2003. But these influences are small. Urdu’s origin: it’s not a ‘camp language’ Rauf Prekh – Dawn Metropolitan dated Dec 18 th, 2011 Some myths are so deep-rooted that one has to work really hard to make people, especially students face facts. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Standard Urdu is often compared with Standard Hindi. When Muslims conquered this part of the continent, they made Persian the official and cultural language of India. At that time, Farsi language was most prevalent but was later changed to Urdu to accommodate other races, despite the fact that Urdu contained 70% Farsi and 30% of an Arabic … A mere glimpse of the history of the origin and development of the Urdu language suggests that, during the course of its development Urdu has been influenced and enriched from Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Khadi Boli, and Punjabi, etc. The Urdu language developed among the Muslim soldiers of the Mughals armies that belonged to various ethnic groups such as Turks, Arabs, Persians, Pathans, Balochis, Rajputs, Jats and Afghans. Urdu is spoken as a first language by nearly 70 million people and as a second language by more than 100 million people, predominantly in Pakistan and India. Available at: http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/scad/archivedwebsites/archivedwebsites/LanguagesInPreIslamicPakistan.htm. Urdu also retains a complete set of aspirated stops (sounds pronounced with a sudden release with an audible breath), a characteristic of Indo-Aryan, as well as retroflex stops. The origin of the Urdu language is obscure. Specifically when Mahmud of Ghazni occupied the territory for 200 years before Delhi was ever invaded. The earliest linguistic influences in the development of Urdu … Zoya Zaidi. Urdu does not retain the complete range of Perso-Arabic consonants, despite its heavy borrowing from that tradition. In this context, the Persian and Arabic words replaced by Sanskrit served to differentiate Hindi from Urdu. It is a later version of Sanskrit. Significant speech communities exist in the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States as well. Language: The Origin of Urdu photo: barna kovacs, unsplash.com: Urdu and Hindi have the same linguistic and historical heritage. Geographically, the origin of Urdu is from Uttar Pradesh in the Subcontinent but gradually in Delhi sultanate and Mughal Empire Urdu became the preferred language. Discover different words with Hindi or Urdu origins with our handy list. She holds a Masters degree in Anthropology from Quaid-e-Azam University, Pakistan. It is the national language of Pakistan and constitutionally recognized official language of more than five states in India. He says that the Urdu language was evolved as a result of the grafting of Persian language on Hariani, a language which was spoken in Delhi in the early days of Sultanate. it emerged as a separate language. Some say it is a fifth or seventh language of the world with the … As the Prakrit language began to develop, it was influenced by the Western Hindi dialects of Khari Boli, Brij Bhasa, and Haryanvi. noun) of Pakistan, but it is also one of India’s 22 official languages (سرکاری زبان/sarkaari zabaan).Modern Standard Urdu, once commonly known as a variant of Hindustani (ہندوستانی), a colloquial language combining the modified … 3. Urdu was believed to have developed in 11th century in the Delhi Sultanate, Urdu is evolved from Apabramsa of Shauraseni Prakrit, Urdu is a major form of Hindustani, The origin of the name Urdu is the Chagatai language's word for army, urdu.Basic Urdu is spoken the same as present-day Hindi, but Hindi uses the traditional Devanagari script (from Sanskrit), whereas Urdu … [Online] 2006 [Cited 2009 April 4]. One of the most eminent earliest poets who made usage of Urdu in his poetry is Amir Khusro who can be called the father of Urdu language. Grammer urdu: history and structure. They share the same Indo-Aryan base and are so similar in phonology and grammar that they appear to be one language. Every language keeps millions of words in which many of them have origin from a foreign language. According to the Urdu Language experts, the origin of Urdu language had taken place in India several centuries back and the names of three places-all in India- are quoted in the historical references where this language had developed and got flourished with different names. Urdu is the language of choice of Muslims in India. But in addition to common ancestors, the two languages ​​are as different as they can be. As far as the early development of Urdu language is … Although Urdu may not be the native language of large proportion of the population of Pakistan and India there are many, many people, about fifty million, who speak it. The term ‘Urdu’ and its origin.The Urdu term derives from a Turkish word ordu which means camp or army. Routledge Publishers. It became a Hindu-Urdu controversy and as a result, Khari Boli and Devanagari became the identity of the Indians, while Urdu and Persian of the Muslims. New Delhi. The Origin of the Urdu Language: The national language of the Pakistani people or our ‘qaumi zuban’ is interestingly, one that most of us learn as a second language. In terms of lexicon, however, they have borrowed extensively from different sources—Urdu from Arabic and Persian, Hindi from Sanskrit—so they are usually treated as independent languages. Urdu had its origin in the Hindi language of North India. There are always several meanings of each word in Urdu, the correct meaning of Origin in Urdu is شروع, and in roman we write it Shuru. At the time when Persian was the official language of the courts of the rulers of the Indian subcontinent, the local Hindi/Sanskrit languages spoken in the region started intermingling. Notably, Urdu and Hindi are mutually intelligible. The other meanings are Aaghaz, … It was based on the language spoken in the region around Delhi, and it was heavily influenced by Arabic and Persian, as well as Turkish. Origin Urdu Meaning - Find the correct meaning of Origin in Urdu, it is important to understand the word properly when we translate it from English to Urdu. (Hindustani now refers to a simplified speech form that is the Indian subcontinent’s largest lingua franca.). The term 'Urdu' and its originThe term Urdu derives from a Turkish word ordu meaning camp or army. Urdu is now the national language of Pakistan, spoken and thoroughly understood by the majority of the population. From the grammatical point of view, there is not much difference between Hindi and Urdu. Urdu is closely related to Hindi, a language that originated and developed in the Indian subcontinent. 2. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. It is for this reason that Urdu is also known as Lashkari Zaban or the language of the army. There are a lot of speculations about it. Dr. Tariq Rehman. Several invasions and conquests in one place affect the development of its language. The Urdu language developed between the Muslim soldiers of the Mughals armies who belonged to various ethnicities like Turks, Arabs, Persians, Pathans, Balochis, Rajputs, Jats and Afghans. Jahan and the term Rekhta scattered meaning (in Persian words) that was coined by scholars for Urdu poetry. Similarly, Mirza Ghalib, Allama Iqbal, Hakim Momin, Ibrahim Zauq, Mir Taqi Mir, Sauda, ​​Ibn-e-Insha, and Faiz Ahmed Faiz have contributed to the evolution of the Urdu language through their literary works. Available at: http://www.sikhspectrum.com/082006/urdu.htm. The Punjabi language, written in the Shahmukhi script is very similar. NOW 50% OFF! Majority of the soldiers that came from Persia, Arab and Turkey, were from a Persian origin. * An Ibn-e-Insha book, dealing with the phonetic and linguistic characteristics of Urdu and a variety of working formations and rhetorical expressions. The Urdu term derives from a Turkish word ordu which means camp or army. The term 'Urdu' and its origin. Commentdocument.getElementById("comment").setAttribute( "id", "a9c7889c1ba6869917c7dbd49808ba9c" );document.getElementById("f48121ce6e").setAttribute( "id", "comment" ); Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. During Mughals’ reign, Urdu was spoken in palaces and court and until the end of Mughal rule; Urdu was the official language of most Mughal states. Corrections? In many writings only the verbs are in Urdu, the rest consisting of Persian constructions and vocabulary, and the themes of…. The term Urdu derives from a Turkish word ordu meaning camp or army. Urdu is widely known as the national language (قومی زبان/qaumi zabaan where “zabaan” is a fem. The largest number of sounds retained is among the spirants, a group of sounds uttered with a friction of breath against some part of the oral passage, in this case /f/, /z/, /zh/, /x/, and /g/. The exact origin is difficult to trace, but there are many different theories to explain the history of Urdu language. During its development, the Urdu language also assumed various names such as the term Urdu-e-Maullah which means the exalted army that was given by Emperor Shah. There are marked grammatical, phonological, and lexical differences in both languages. Indo-Aryan languages. One such myth is about the origin of Urdu. Mughal kings were the great … One distinction is that Urdu uses more Perso-Arabic prefixes and suffixes than Hindi; examples include the prefixes dar- ‘in,’ ba-/baa- ‘with,’ be-/bila-/la- ‘without,’ and bad- ‘ill, miss’ and the suffixes -dar ‘holder,’ -saz ‘maker’ (as in zinsaz ‘harness maker’), -khor ‘eater’ (as in muftkhor ‘free eater’), and -posh ‘cover’ (as in mez posh ‘table cover’). History. Various theories have been given to explain it. Urdu Literature. Abul Fazal Faizi and Abdul Rahim Khankhana were the famous Urdu poets of the Mughal court. It was Hindi as it was modified in the military camps of … Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Ameera Kamal is a research writer based in Islamabad. official language of Pakistan, 1796, formerly also known as Hindustani, from Urdu urdu "camp," from Turkish ordu (source of horde); short for zaban-i-urdu "language of the camp." Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! How the language is originated. The term Prakrriti means root or base. Urdū is one of the 22 official languages of India. The old name of Urdu was (Reekhta) ریختہ and the meaning of this word is a thing that has no value. This work, published in Delhi in 1920, is a history of the Urdu language from its origins to the development of an Urdu literature. Its first major poet was Amir Khosrow (1253–1325), who composed dohas (couplets), folk songs, and riddles in the newly formed speech, then called Hindvi. The origin of Urdu can be traced backed to when the Ghazvanid ruled Punjab, with the Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate. [Online] [Cited 2009 April 4]. These soldiers lived in close contact with each other and communicated in different dialects, which evolved slowly and gradually until today Urdu. Urdu was brought to other parts of the country by soldiers, saints and Sufis and by ordinary people. Evolution and development of any language depends on the evolution and development of a society where that language is spoken. The origin of Urdu literature dates back to the 13th century in India during the Mughal rule. Urdu and Hindi share an Indo-Aryan base, but Urdu is associated with the Nastaliq script style of Persian calligraphy and reads right-to-left, whereas Hindi resembles Sanskrit and reads left-to-right. Urdu language, member of the Indo-Aryan group within the Indo-European family of languages. In literature, Urdu was usually used along side Persian. What is the origin of Urdu Language? With the arrival of the British, the new English words also became part of the Urdu language. Urdu was chosen to become the national language of Pakistan at the time of British independence. The Urdu language developed among the Muslim soldiers of the Mughals armies that belonged to various ethnic groups such as Turks, Arabs, Persians, Pathans, Balochis, Rajputs, Jats and Afghans. 5. The origin of Urdu literature dates back to the 13th century in India during the Mughal rule. Urdu . However, there are also traces of the French, Portuguese and Dutch language in Urdu. Its influence, however, does not compare with that…, Urdu, now the chief literary language of Muslim India and Pakistan, borrowed heavily from Persian literature during its classical period in the 18th century. Urdu was also used as a tool by Muslims for the fight for freedom and to raise awareness among Muslim communities in South Asia to unite under the banner of independence from the British Raj. …a common medium of expression, Urdu.…, …Islām created a new language, Urdu (from Persian: Camp), based on Hindi; Urdu was the lingua franca of the army. Origin of Urdu. In primary schools, the child encounters its alphabet ‘alif bey pey’. The Urdu language developed among the Muslim soldiers of the Mughals armies that belonged to various ethnic groups such as Turks, Arabs, Persians, Pathans, Balochis, Rajputs, Jats and Afghans. Urdu is spoken as a first language by nearly 70 million people and as a second language by more than 100 million people, predominantly in Pakistan and India.It is the official state language of Pakistan and is also officially recognized, … History and evolution of the Urdu language. As a result of the amalgamation of local dialects and the language of the invaders, which was Persian, Arabic and Turkish, a new language developed that later became Urdu. The move earned huge criticism and Punjab CM objected to this move of PU and said that Urdu is an Indian language like any other Indian language. For this, the services of Maulana Hali, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Allama Iqbal are notable, who through their poetry and prose caused the necessary spark in the lives of Muslims. Urdu: language and poetry. Urdu belongs to the Indo-Aryan family of languages. Ram Babu Saksena. The Mughal kings were the great patrons of art and literature and under their rule the Urdu language reached its zenith. There used to be a tradition of ‘Sheri Mehfils’ (poetic gatherings) in the courts of kings. However, spoken Punjabi has a different phonology and is not easily understood by Urdu speakers. Villages and languages ​​in the pre-Islamic Indo valley. Compare Dzongkha, a variant of Tibetan and the official language of Bhutan, literally "the language of the fortress. It is true that Hindi and Urdu are descendants of the same language, that is, Prakrit, but when Hindi took influence from Sanskrit and adopted Devanagri script, Urdu absorbed words from Persian, Turkish and Arabic and adopted Persian Arabic script. George Cardona and Dhanesh Jain (eds). It has official status in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, and Uttar Pradeshwhere it is used in government administration and as the medium of instruction in primary scho… 1.
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