ESP and AH can be used in two modes: transport mode and tunnel mode. The Internet Key Exchange (IKE) is implemented on top of UDP, port 500. Problems 1. The exchange of this information creates a security association (SA), which is a policy and set of keys used to protect a one-way communication. We have seen this document used for several purposes by our customers and internal teams (beyond a geeky wall decoration to shock and impress your cubicle neighbors). We then discuss the IPsec protocols for protecting user data: the ESP and the AH. It is used to assist in replay protection. This reference architecture is not just another security book. NIST considers information security architecture to be an integrated part of enterprise architecture, but conventional security architecture and control frameworks such as ISO 27001, NIST Special Publication 800-53, and the Sherwood Applied Business Security Architecture (SABSA) have structures that do not align directly to the layers typical in enterprise architectures. Eric Conrad, ... Joshua Feldman, in CISSP Study Guide (Second Edition), 2012. Hamidreza Ghafghazi, ... Carlisle Adams, in Wireless Public Safety Networks 2, 2016. Security Architecture and Design is a three-part domain. Secure Architecture Design. IPsec defines two protocols to protect data, the Encapsulated Security Payload (ESP) and the Authentication Header (AH). EPS makes use of both IKEv1 and IKEv2. The establishment of an SA using IKEv1 or IKEv2 occurs in two phases. In addition, an active attacker can grab the handover request messages sent from an old eNB to the new eNB. Also, mutual authentication of the two parties takes place during phase 1. Principles of Secure Design 1. Every packet exchanged in phase 2 is authenticated and encrypted according to keys and algorithms selected in the previous phase. For example, on the SWu interface between UE and ePDG, and on the S2c interface between UE and PDN GW, IKEv2 is used. Enterprise information security architecture (EISA) is the practice of applying a comprehensive and rigorous method for describing a current and/or future structure and behavior for an organization's security processes, information security systems, personnel, and organizational sub-units so that they align with the organization's core goals and strategic direction. These services are defined as follows: The authentication service verifies the supposed identity of a user or a system. The confidentiality service protects the data against non-authorized revelations. IPsec provides security services for both IPv4 and IPv6. And on the other hand, public key cryptography requires complex algorithms, large key-sizes, and management of the public keys. The security architecture and design should enable better, simpler, and faster administration of users within the SDDC. Security Services in Fieldbuses: At What Cost? In this case the UE would have to negotiate a new IKE SA and IPsec SA, which may take a long time and result in service interruption. Organizations find this architecture useful because it covers capabilities across the mod… Figure 16.41. The architecture should adhere to security … Design Software Security Architecture 5m Adequate Security 4m Architecture Based Controls 7m Client Server 8m Web-based Architecture Risk 5m Pervasive Computing 7m Feature-based Risk 10m Side Channel Vulnerabilities The enterprise in this example is a financial company, and their goal is to have an additional one million users within the next two years. Defining the appropriate architectural information security requirements based on the organization’s risk management strategy. Whereas the verification of a checksum value or an error detecting code, as those produced by the CRC algorithms or the frame check sequence (FCS), is designed to detect only accidental modifications of the data. The resulting documentation step would then include a plan for applying controls based on priority or risk and the effort involved, and this plan would then be carried out in the implementation step. To provide confidentiality, nodes may encrypt their contents using a random session key and a symmetric crypto-algorithm specially tailored for constrained environments. To ensure security in Smart Grid, from development via roll-out to operation, proven development processes and management are needed to minimize or eliminate security vulnerabilities that are introduced in the development lifecycle. If for a given fieldbus public key cryptography solutions are too expensive, we can still design limited security schemes for fieldbuses at a cheaper price, i.e. Security Architecture Design Phase: The concept of a threat intelligence driven defendable architecture Threat intelligence driven defendable architecture is the concept Telenor uses to develop its security architecture. Allocating management, operational, and technical security controls to information systems and environments of operation as defined by the information security architecture. There are in fact two versions of IKE: IKE version 1 (IKEv1) and IKE version 2 (IKEv2). Integrity and non-repudiation can be obtained by signing/verifying all the messages transmitted between a particular slave node and the master node. While almost every federal agency can be expected to have an enterprise architecture—in most cases reflecting a common architecture framework such as the Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF) or Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF)—there is much greater variation among agencies in the existence and structure of formally documented security architectures. The set of security services provided by IPsec include: By access control we mean the service to prevent unauthorized use of a resource such as a particular server or a particular network. Consider an electronic bill-paying system (such as Quicken Bill […] Building security into Smart Grid from the component to the system level requires appropriate methods and techniques to rigorously address many heterogeneous security issues in all phases of the software and system development lifecycle. The secure channel is called ISAKMP Security Association. Both security architecture and security design are elements of how IT professionals work to provide comprehensive security for systems. CISA is part of the Department of Homeland Security, Control System External Business Communication Server, Control System Business Communications DMZ. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Transport mode is often used between two endpoints to protect the traffic corresponding to a certain application. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The IPsec SA for ESP has been set up using IKEv2 (see Section 10.10 for more details). Agencies can address risk management considerations at the mission and business tier by [34]: Developing an information security segment architecture linked to the strategic goals and objectives, well-defined mission and business functions, and associated processes. 3. An architecture consists of four large parts: Business, Information, Information System and Technical Infrastructure. The messages containing the identity information are not authenticated or encrypted. Design for Attackers – Your security design and prioritization should be focused on the way attackers see your environment, which is often not the way IT and application teams see it. The Security Architecture of the OSI Reference Model (ISO 7498-2) considers five main classes of security services: authentication, access control, confidentiality, integrity and non-repudiation. The two peers agree on authentication and encryption methods, exchange keys, and verify the other's identity. Identifying where effective risk response is a critical element in the success of organizational mission and business functions. This is where Internet Key Exchange (IKE) comes into the picture. It also specifies when and where to apply security controls. Inform your security design and test it with penetration testing to simulate one time attacks and red teams to simulate long-term persistent attack groups. These controls serve the purpose to maintain the system’s quality attributes such … Structure the security relevant features 6. This secure architecture design is the result of an evolutionary process of technology advancement and increasing cyber vulnerability presented in the Recommended Practice document, Control Systems Defense in Depth Strategies. Another difference is that ESP only protects the content of the IP packet (including the ESP header and part of the ESP trailer), while AH protects the complete IP packet, including the IP header and AH header. For instance, data confidentiality can be achieved by using some lightweight cryptographic stream cipher, such as RC4 or A5/1 GSM, or even a reduced version of traditional symmetric algorithms such as DES or AES, which can be obtained by reducing the size of the encryption key or by limiting the standard number of rounds used during the encryption/decryption processes (16 in the case of DES and 10 for AES). For untrusted non-3GPP networks, the authors proposed a pre-authentication approach. On other interfaces in EPS, however, it is primarily IKEv2 that is used. IPsec is a very wide topic and many books have been written on this subject. Start working on page 2 of the cover sheet. This reference architecture is created to improve security and privacy designs in general. Starting template for a security architecture – The most common use case we see is that organizations use the document to help define a target state for cybersecurity capabilities. When IKEv1 is used, authentication can be based on either shared secrets or certificates by using a public key infrastructure (PKI). Security architecture is the set of resources and components of a security system that allow it to function. The new eNB will retrieve old NCC value and send back to the UE. Pra… Finally, we briefly discuss the IKEv2 Mobility and Multi-homing Protocol (MOBIKE). Tunnel mode is typically used to protect all IP traffic between security gateways or in VPN connections where a UE connects to a secure network via an unsecure access. In tunnel mode, on the other hand, ESP and AH are used to protect a complete IP packet. ISAKMP is a framework for negotiating, establishing, and maintaining SAs. RFC 4301 is an update of the previous IPsec security architecture specification found in IETF RFC 2401. One mode is defined for phase 2. Determining Requirements. For the latter, the delay of handover has been reduced without compromising the security level. In agencies with collaborative working relationships between enterprise architecture and information security programs (both of which commonly reside within the office of the chief information officer), integrating enterprise and security architectures may present little difficulty, but agencies without such close relationships may experience significant challenges harmonizing EA and security architecture perspectives. 2. Security Architecture and Design describes fundamental logical hardware, operating system, and software security components and how to use those components to design, architect, and evaluate secure computer systems. 2. セキュリティアーキテクチャは柔軟でなければなりません。NTTセキュリティはお客様のセキュリティアーキテクチャと設計が現在および将来のビジネス目標に沿って進化できるよう、常に安全に新技術を採用し、新しいビジネスチャンスを支援することを目指しています。 In order to communicate using IPsec, the two parties need to establish the required IPsec SAs. For more details on S2c and SWu, see Sections 15.5.1 and 15.10.1Section 15.5.1Section 15.10.1 respectively. EPS uses IPsec to secure communication on several interfaces, in some cases between nodes in the core network and in other cases between the UE and the core network. Ensures that the stakeholder security requirements necessary to protect the organization’s mission and business processes are adequately addressed in all aspects of enterprise architecture including reference models, segment and solution architectures, and the resulting systems supporting those missions and business processes. The SPI can be seen as an index to a Security Associations database maintained by the IPsec nodes and containing all SAs. If the user now moves to a different network (e.g. As will be seen below, the IKE protocol can be used to establish and maintain IPsec SAs. Evan Wheeler, in Security Risk Management, 2011. Companies of every That can be accomplished by assigning to each slave node in the network a unique private key and a master node’s public key. LTE security architecture benefits from key freshness techniques used in the handover process to prevent security threats from malicious eNBs. In order to use the IPsec services between two nodes, the nodes use certain security parameters that define the communication, such as keys, encryption algorithms, and so on. Examples are the authentication algorithms, encryption algorithms, keys, lifetimes for each SA (by seconds and bytes), and modes to use. It provides confidentiality, integrity, and availability assurances against deliberate attacks and … Secure the weakest link 2. Employ least privilege 5. However, it does not detect if the packets have been duplicated (replayed) or reordered. Other optional parameters such as SA lifetime can also be part of the protection suite. The mechanism to achieve confidentiality with IPsec is encryption, where the content of the IP packets is transformed using an encryption algorithm so that it becomes unintelligible. ISAKMP is, however, distinct from the actual key exchange protocols in order to cleanly separate the details of security association management (and key management) from the details of key exchange. Security is as much about perception as it is about reality, and cultural anxiety often influences building design. The work in [RAJ 08] presented a method to address handover issues between 3GPP networks and non-3GPP networks. 1. However, if an eNB is compromised, the adversary is able to modify Next-Hop Chaining Counter (NCC) and as a result the synchronization between UE and target eNB is disrupted. The information security architecture seeks to ensure that information systems and their operating environments consistently and cost-effectively satisfy mission and business process-driven security requirements, consistent with the organizational risk management strategy and sound system and security engineering principles. The same security architecture risk analysis workflow described above applies to the general process for bringing legacy resources into compliance with the security architectural standards. The design process is … The access control service protects the system resources against non-authorized users. Miguel Leόn Chávez, Francisco Rodríguez Henríquez, in Fieldbus Systems and Their Applications 2005, 2006. source and destination addresses, message length, or frequency of packet lengths. Improvements have, for example, been made in terms of reduced complexity of the protocol, simplification of the documentation (one RFC instead of three), reduced latency in common scenarios, and support for Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) and mobility extensions (MOBIKE). The node may want to use a different interface in case the currently used interface suddenly stops working. The user traffic between the UE and the ePDG (i.e. Allow for future security enhancements 3. Magnus Olsson, ... Catherine Mulligan, in EPC and 4G Packet Networks (Second Edition), 2013. This secure architecture design is the result of an evolutionary process of technology advancement and increasing cyber vulnerability presented in the Recommended Practice document, Control Systems Defense in Depth Strategies. Design security in from the start 2. The non-repudiation service prevents an entity from denying previous commitments or actions. The SA database that contains parameters associated with each active SA. One example is a multi-homing node with multiple interfaces and IP addresses. Security is a system requirement just like performance, capability, cost, etc.Therefore, it may be necessary to trade offcertain security requirements to gain others. After that we discuss the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocol used for authentication and establishing IPsec Security Associations (SAs). The scheme employs dynamic passwords that are linked to a public key to be used in the public key broadcast protocol. The IPsec SAs are used for the IPsec protection of the data using ESP or AH. Security architecture calls for its own unique set of skills and competencies of the enterprise and IT architects. Example of IP Packet Protected Using ESP in Transport Mode. It is not the intention and ambition of this chapter to provide a complete overview and tutorial on IPsec. Security architecture introduces unique, single-purpose components in the design. Previous versions of ESP and AH are defined in IETF RFC 2406 and 2402 respectively. IKEv1 has subsequently been replaced by IKEv2, which is an evolution of IKEv1/ISAKMP. In the next section we give an overview of basic IPsec concepts. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. ISOL 536 – Security Architecture and Design Dr. Charles DeSassure University of the Cumberlands Lab 4 General Instructions 1. Example of IP Packet Protected Using ESP in Tunnel Mode. The Data part of the ESP packet in Figure 16.38 now corresponds to a complete IP packet, including the IP header. An SA is the relation between the two entities, defining how they are going to communicate using IPsec. Consequently, the two peers generate a new Diffie-Hellman key pair. The first part covers the hardware and software required to have a secure computer system. Secure Architecture Design looks at the selection and composition of components that form the foundation of your solution, focusing on its security properties. The first part covers the hardware and software required to have a secure computer system, the second part covers the logical models required to keep the system secure, and the third part covers evaluation models that quantify how secure the system really is. The Sequence number contains a counter that increases for each packet sent. The hash functions accept a variable-size message as input and produce a fixed-size code, called the hash code or message digest. IP Packet (Data) Protected by ESP. However, in many scenarios a dynamic mechanism for authentication, key generation, and IPsec SA generation is needed. The Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) Security Architecture and Design domain is another one of the many domains within the Common Body of …
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