From the same era, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's view on the absolute authority of the state also strongly influenced Fascist thinking. " Once in power, the Nazis drew sharp distinctions between those undeserving and those deserving of assistance, and strove to direct all public and private aid towards the latter.  The Manifesto supported the creation of an eight-hour work day for all workers, a minimum wage, worker representation in industrial management, equal confidence in labour unions as in industrial executives and public servants, reorganization of the transportation sector, revision of the draft law on invalidity insurance, reduction of the retirement age from 65 to 55, a strong progressive tax on capital, confiscation of the property of religious institutions and abolishment of bishoprics and revision of military contracts to allow the government to seize 85% of war profits made by the armaments industry.  About a hundred people were killed, and some areas of Italy came fully under the control of fascist squads, which did not allow known socialist supporters to vote or hold meetings. , Fascists saw contemporary politics as a life or death struggle of their nations against Marxism, and they believed that liberalism weakened their nations in this struggle and left them defenseless.  Fascist propaganda aggrandized this event, known as "March on Rome", as a "seizure" of power due to Fascists' heroic exploits. But to exchange “capitalist” claptrap for “socialist” claptrap will not suffice. Hitler, 1889–1936: hubris.  Hitler focused on ancient Rome during its rise to dominance and at the height of its power as a model to follow, and he deeply admired the Roman Empire for its ability to forge a strong and unified civilization.  The liberals and the leftist minority in parliament walked out in protest in what became known as the Aventine Secession. Fascism supported private property rights – except for the groups it persecuted – and the profit motive of capitalism, but sought to eliminate the autonomy of large-scale capitalism by bolstering private power with the state. , With the antagonism between anti-interventionist Marxists and pro-interventionist Fascists complete by the end of the war, the two sides became irreconcilable.  Private capitalism was not directly challenged, but it was subordinated to the military and foreign policy goals of the state, in a way that reduced the decision-making power of industrial managers but did not interfere with the pursuit of private profit. The point being here is that Marxism has legitimate contributions to make despite its faults. The Archbishop called this a ‘Christian heresy.’. However, a significant part of the movement's funding came from pro-war business interests and major landowners. " After his death and the rise of Francisco Franco, the rhetoric changed, and Falangist leader Raimundo Fernández-Cuesta declared the movement's ideology to be compatible with capitalism. They considered the individual as only one part of the larger collectivity, which should not be viewed as an atomized numerical sum of individuals.  Peruvian president Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro founded the Revolutionary Union in 1931 as the state party for his dictatorship. Again, his criticisms of Capitalism are valid.  Conservatives and fascists both reject the liberal and Marxist emphasis on linear progressive evolution in history.  Italian Fascists also idolized Augustus as the champion who built the Roman Empire. There is more that is societally dysfunctional with the ideology undergirding American capitalism. The dividing line between capitalism and neo-liberalism is so thin that many consider the two concepts as synonymous with each other. Regard Russia and some other nations that saw Marxist revolutions, the trouble is that the conditions that existed prior to those revolutions were totalitarian and one cannot rule out that influence on the revolutions. King Victor Emmanuel III remained head of state, the armed forces and the judicial system retained considerable autonomy from the Fascist state, Fascist militias were under military control and initially the economy had relative autonomy as well. Axis forces at the height of their power controlled almost all of continental Europe, including the occupation of large portions of the Soviet Union. (Archived by WebCite®).  Mussolini himself remained in Milan to await the results of the actions. Aldershot, Hampshire, England ; Burlington, VT : Ashgate, c2005. 12th Edition. Flashcards.  Thus, Nazi views on capitalism were shaped by the question of which race the capitalists belonged to.  In the end, the approach that prevailed after the Nazis came to power was a pragmatic one, in which there would be no new economic system, but rather a continuation of "the long German tradition of authoritarian statist economics, which dated well back into the nineteenth century. , Italian Fascism had ideological connections with revolutionary syndicalism, in particular Sorelian syndicalism. My disagreement with you here is that you want to present Marxism as a monolith and being able to produce only totalitarianism. Amen to that. The most important[according to whom?] Capitalism’s ideology. We can create our paradise here on Earth without You!” Is it any wonder then, that communism worked out as badly as it did? , Gaetano Mosca in his work The Ruling Class (1896) developed the theory that claims that in all societies, an "organized minority" will dominate and rule over the "disorganized majority". There are numerous explanations, perhaps the most popular being the notion that it simply didn’t conform to human nature.  In the early 1900s Sorel had officially been a revisionist of Marxism, but by 1910 he announced his abandonment of socialism, and in 1914 he claimed - following an aphorism of Benedetto Croce - that "socialism is dead" due to the "decomposition of Marxism".  Militant squadristi were initially highly dissatisfied with Mussolini's government and demanded a "Fascist revolution". , The French Revolution and its political legacy had a major influence upon the development of fascism.  The fascist Iron Guard movement in Romania soared in political support after 1933, gaining representation in the Romanian government and an Iron Guard member assassinated prime minister Ion Duca. Such an alliance would have secured a large majority in parliament, ending the political deadlock and making effective government possible. Dahlia S. Elazar. , Sorel's political allegiances were constantly shifting, influencing a variety of people across the political spectrum from Benito Mussolini to Benedetto Croce to Georg Lukács, and both sympathizers and critics of Sorel considered his political thought to be a collection of separate ideas with no coherence and no common thread linking them.  Social Darwinism challenged positivism's claim of deliberate and rational choice as the determining behaviour of humans, with social Darwinism focusing on heredity, race and environment. London, England, UK; New York, New York, US: Routledge, 2004. p. 207. , There were both pro-capitalist and anti-capitalist elements in fascist thought.  Amid a political crisis in Spain involving increased strike activity and rising support for anarchism, Spanish army commander Miguel Primo de Rivera engaged in a successful coup against the Spanish government in 1923 and installed himself as a dictator as head of a conservative military junta that dismantled the established party system of government. " At this time, between 1917 and 1919, Mussolini and the early Fascist movement presented themselves as opponents of censorship and champions of free thought and speech, calling these "among the highest expressions of human civilization. One question here is whether Marx created the concept of Capitalism or did he observe and identify it.  He states that the official goal of contemporary democracy of eliminating elite rule was impossible, that democracy is a façade legitimizing the rule of a particular elite and that elite rule, which he refers to as oligarchy, is inevitable. We disagree on Marx. The Guardian.  Mussolini denounced this supercapitalism as a failure due to its alleged decadence, support for unlimited consumerism and intention to create the "standardization of humankind". , One issue where Fascism is in accord with liberalism is in its support of private property rights and the existence of a market economy.  He claims that the social structure of the military is ideal because it includes diverse social elements that balance each other out and more importantly is its inclusion of an officer class as a "power elite". Efforts to increase Fascist influence over Italian society accelerated beginning in 1926, with Fascists taking positions in local administration and 30% of all prefects being administered by appointed Fascists by 1929.  In 1939, Germany prepared for war with Poland, but also attempted to gain territorial concessions from Poland through diplomatic means.  Because of the merger of the Nationalists with the Fascists, tensions existed between the conservative nationalist and revolutionary syndicalist factions of the movement. , Benito Mussolini became prominent within the early pro-war movement thanks to his newspaper, Il Popolo d'Italia, which he founded in November 1914 to support the interventionist cause. PLAY. It clocks in at well over 1000 pages, dwarfing the already weighty earlier book.  Mussolini also advocated waging a war of conquest in the Balkans and the Middle East, and his supporters began to call themselves fascisti.  Many of the wealthy Italian industrialists and landlords backed Mussolini because he provided stability (especially compared to the Giolitti era), and because under Mussolini's government there were "few strikes, plenty of tax concessions for the well-to-do, an end to rent controls and generally high profits for business.". Even Hitler used to babble about Socialism, and he worked the word into the name of his Nazi [National Socialist] party. , By early 1915, Mussolini had moved towards the nationalist position. In an effort to expand Italy's population to facilitate Mussolini's future plans to control the Mediterranean region, the Fascists banned literature on birth control and increased penalties for abortion in 1926, declaring both crimes against the state. Benito Mussolini, Doctrine of Fascism (1932). We cannot afford to look at either Marxism or the West in all-or-nothing terms. , German Nazism, like Italian Fascism, also incorporated both pro-capitalist and anti-capitalist views. The March on Rome brought Fascism international attention. " Later in life he returned to cultural traditionalism and parliamentary conservatism, but his ideas contributed to the development of an extremist form of nationalism in pre-1914 France.  Mussolini believed that Italy could gain some territorial concessions from France and then concentrate its forces on a major offensive in Egypt. This crippling electoral defeat was largely due to fascism's lack of ideological credibility, as the fascist movement was a mixture of many different ideas and tendencies.  Attacks on interventionists were so violent that even democratic socialists who opposed the war, such as Anna Kuliscioff, said that the Italian Socialist Party had gone too far in its campaign to silence supporters of the war.  In Paraguay in 1940, Paraguayan President General Higinio Morínigo began his rule as a dictator with the support of pro-fascist military officers, appealed to the masses, exiled opposition leaders and only abandoned his pro-fascist policies after the end of World War II.  Fascist support for capitalism was based on the idea that economic competition was good for the nation, as well as social Darwinist beliefs that the economic success of the wealthy proved their superiority and that interfering with natural selection in the economy would burden the nation by preserving weak individuals. After World War II and a period of international isolation, Franco's regime normalized relations with Western powers during the early years of the Cold War until Franco's death in 1975 and the transformation of Spain into a liberal democracy.  Italian Fascists identified the Roman Empire as being an ideal organic and stable society in contrast to contemporary individualist liberal society that they saw as being chaotic in comparison. , In the 1990s, Payne claimed that the Hindu nationalist movement Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) holds strong resemblances to fascism, including its use of paramilitaries and its irredentist claims calling for the creation of a Greater India. Welfare benefits were abruptly withdrawn from Jews, Communists, many Social Democrats, Jehovah's Witnesses, and others that were considered enemies of the Nazi regime, at first without any legal justification.  Mussolini professed that Machiavelli's "pessimism about human nature was eternal in its acuity.  The Greek philosopher Plato supported many similar political positions to fascism. Mussolini supported irredentist Italian claims over neighboring territories, establishing Italian domination of the Mediterranean Sea, securing Italian access to the Atlantic Ocean, and the creation of Italian spazio vitale ("vital space") in the Mediterranean and Red Sea regions. ", In Germany, the Nazi Party condemned the welfare system of the Weimar Republic, together with private charity and philanthropy, as being "evils that had to be eliminated if the German race was to be strengthened and its weakest elements weeded out in the process of natural selection. The Imaginative Conservative is sponsored by The Free Enterprise Institute (a U.S. 501(c)3 tax exempt organization). (Madison, Wisconsin; London: University of Wisconsin Press, 1980) p. 162. The Manifesto supported the creation of universal suffrage for both men and women (the latter being realized only partly in late 1925, with all opposition parties banned or disbanded); proportional representation on a regional basis; government representation through a corporatist system of "National Councils" of experts, selected from professionals and tradespeople, elected to represent and hold legislative power over their respective areas, including labour, industry, transportation, public health, communications, etc.  While the socialist left was seen by the fascists as their main enemy, liberals were seen as the enemy's accomplices, "incompetent guardians of the nation against the class warfare waged by the socialists.  At the same time, Benito Mussolini joined the interventionist cause. This helped to draw disaffected former soldiers into the Fascist ranks.  Sorel became a supporter of reactionary Maurrassian integral nationalism beginning in 1909, and this greatly influenced his works.  Absolutism based its legitimacy on the precedents of Roman law including the centralized Roman state and the manifestation of Roman law in the Catholic Church. Surviving enthusiasts for an abstraction called “socialism” impose killing burdens upon themselves by endeavoring to maintain a cause hopelessly discredited by the squalid oligarchs of actual socialist states. Instead, claiming that Italians were a superior race to African races and thereby had the right to colonize the "inferior" Africans, it sought to settle 10 to 15 million Italians in Libya. (JStor.org preview), Rory, Carroll. , An organization called National Socialist People's Welfare (Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt, NSV) was given the task of taking over the functions of social welfare institutions and "coordinating" the private charities, which had previously been run mainly by the churches and by the labour movement. , At the same time, Mussolini continued to present himself as the champion of Italian national interests and territorial expansion in the Balkans. According to Mussolini, the original form was heroic capitalism or dynamic capitalism (1830–1870), which gave way to static capitalism (1870–1914), which then transformed into decadent capitalism or "supercapitalism", starting in 1914. Fascist opposition to capitalism was based on the perceived decadence, hedonism and cosmopolitanism of the wealthy, in comparison with the idealized discipline, patriotism and moral virtue of the middle classes. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. wrote that "Fascists were not conservative in any very meaningful sense… The Fascists, in a meaningful sense, were revolutionaries". Hierotheos, Metropolitan of Nafpaktos and Saint Vlassios . If people have something to eat and their pleasures, then they have their socialism". How could one little book spawn so much evil? How can one make an alliance with ghosts? We don’t want You. , With the advent of the Darwinian theory of evolution came claims of evolution possibly leading to decadence. kirsten_palmer4 PLUS. The Nazis advocated the conspiracy theory that Jewish communists were working together with Jewish finance capital against Germany. Smith criticises the notion that women lost status and freedom under capitalism, stating that it is only with the development of capitalist relations of production that the potentialities of women’s liberation exist.  Mussolini organized his own militia, known as the "blackshirts," which started a campaign of violence against Communists, Socialists, trade unions and co-operatives under the pretense of "saving the country from bolshevism" and preserving order and internal peace in Italy.  Together with many smaller donations that he received from the public as part of a fund drive to support D'Annunzio, this helped to build up the Fascist movement and transform it from a small group based around Milan to a national political force. The Fascists only picked up 7 percent of the vote and 35 seats in parliament, but this was a large improvement compared to their results only two years earlier, when they had won no seats at all. The central tenet of this ideology is that U.S. society is one in which all people are free and equal, and thus, can do and achieve anything they want in life. Capitalism is an ideology representing a broad range of ideologies that fall under the umbrella of "Capitalism".  Mussolini at this stage tried to maintain a balance, by still claiming to be a social revolutionary while also cultivating a "positive attitude" towards capitalism and capitalists. As such, fascist movements criticized the welfare policies of the democratic governments they opposed, but eventually adopted welfare policies of their own to gain popular support. In Mr. Taylor’s view, this demonstrated to him that there needed to be answers outside the mantra of individual liberty and free markets. , The rise of support for anarchism in this period of time was important in influencing the politics of fascism. That is the question historians looking back on the 20th century will have to answer. , The NSV officially defined its mandate very broadly. Spell.  The economic policies of fascist governments, meanwhile, were generally not based on ideological commitments one way or the other, but dictated by pragmatic concerns with building a strong national economy, promoting autarky, and the need to prepare for war and to wage war.  Michels argues that oligarchy is inevitable as an "iron law" within any organization as part of the "tactical and technical necessities" of organization and on the topic of democracy, Michels stated: "It is organization which gives birth to the dominion of the elected over the electors, of the mandataries over the mandators, of the delegates over the delegators.