About the Algae: Spirulina is the common name of the cyanobacteria Arthrospira plantensis. Cultivated worldwide, Arthrospira is used as a dietary supplement or whole food. [1], Like all protein-rich foods, spirulina contains the essential amino acid phenylalanine (2.6-4.1 g/100 g),[5] which should be avoided by people who have phenylketonuria, a rare genetic disorder that prevents the body from metabolizing phenylalanine, which then builds up in the brain, causing damage. Spirulina is a cyanobacterium, or blue-green algae, belonging to the Arthrospira genus. We'd like to inform you that we have updated our Privacy Notice to comply Earth Food Spirulina (Arthrospira ): Production and Quality Standarts 193 (Fig. The temperature optimum for this organism is around 35°C. Figure 8: The effect of temperature (Cº) in photosynthesis on A.platensis cells (Vonshak, 1997) 3.4.3 Salinity 4.0 Propagation and Management 4.1. Parts of the plant used: Leaves, bark, fruits, seed kernels, and root. [2][4], As an ecologically sound, nutrient-rich dietary supplement, spirulina is being investigated to address food security and malnutrition, and as dietary support in long-term space flight or Mars missions. It is incredibly high in proteins and a good source of antioxidants, B-vitamins and other nutrients. The common name, spirulina, refers to the dried biomass of A. platensis,[3] which belongs to photosynthetic bacteria that cover the groups Cyanobacteria and Prochlorophyta. Arthrospira platensis, also known as Spirulina, is a gram negative, non-toxic species of cyanobacteria with a wide array of uses in the natural and commercial world. The spirulina is harvested from small lakes and ponds around Lake Chad. Macroalgae, Phytoplankton, Spirulina Home / Daily Health Tips / Health Benefits of Spirulina. [18] An in vitro study reported that different strains of microalgae produced DHA and EPA in substantial amounts. ")[50], Heavy-metal contamination of spirulina supplements has also raised concern. They occur naturally in tropical and subtropical lakes with high pH and high concentrations of carbonate and bicarbonate. As a result, the first systematic and detailed study of the growth requirements and physiology of spirulina was performed as a basis for establishing large-scale production in the 1970s. Here are some of the more common names and misspellings: yaeyama, ojio, kyoto, febico, pyrenoidosa, afa, alage, aphanizomenon, flos-aquae, alga, algai, algal, algea, arthrospira, platensis, kelp, manna, mana, kyoto, onnit and finally gaia. Cultivated worldwide, Arthrospira is used as a dietary supplement or whole food. Please consider upgrading,

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Its name derived from the fact that the filaments are spiral 1,2. Common name; فارسی: ... Arthrospira platensis‎ (3 F) S Spirulina (dietary supplement)‎ (12 F) Pages in category "Arthrospira" This category contains only the following page. These photosynthetic organisms, Cyanobacteria, were first considered as algae until 1962 and for the first time, these blue-green algae were added to prokaryote kingdom and proposed to call these microorganisms as Cyanobacteria where algae are considered to be a very large and diverse group of eukaryotic organism… Common or trade name: Spirulina, organic Spirulina, Spirulina platensis, Arthrospira, or Arthrospira platensis. The odor and taste of spirulina is similar to seaweed. Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) is a blue-green algae. [7][8] The Aztecs called it tecuitlatl. Because spirulina is considered a dietary supplement in the U.S., no active, industry-wide regulation of its production occurs and no enforced safety standards exist for its production or purity. In addition, a nutrient feed for growing it is:[6], Spirulina was a food source for the Aztecs and other Mesoamericans until the 16th century; the harvest from Lake Texcoco in Mexico and subsequent sale as cakes were described by one of Cortés' soldiers. [1], Spirulina is a form of cyanobacterium, some of which were found to produce toxins, such as microcystins. Spirulina may have adverse interactions when taken with prescription drugs, particularly those affecting the immune system and blood clotting. Standards of identity: We note that an ingredient that is lawfully added to food products may be used in a standardized food only if it is permitted by the applicable [48] Microcystins can cause gastrointestinal upset, such as diarrhea, flatulence, headache, muscle pain, facial flushing, and sweating. Health Benefits of Spirulina. [22] The medical literature similarly advises that spirulina is unsuitable as a source of B12. In the late 1980s and early 90s, both NASA (CELSS)[45] and the European Space Agency (MELiSSA)[46] proposed spirulina as one of the primary foods to be cultivated during long-term space missions. Bibliographic References. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1998;18:7-12. The three species are Arthrospira platensis, A. fusiformis, and A. maxima. Scientific Name: Arthrospira platensis Botanical Family: Oscillatoriaceae. Arthrospira platensis is a planktonic filamentous cyanobacterium composed of... Mass Cultivation of Freshwater Microalgae☆. [5] The topic of tecuitlatl, which was discovered in 1520, was not mentioned again until 1940, when the Belgian phycologist Pierre Dangeard mentioned a cake called dihe consumed by the Kanembu tribe, who harvest it from Lake Chad in the African nation of Chad. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by an aqueous extract of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis). [42] Spirulina has been studied as a potential nutritional supplement for adults and children affected by HIV, but there was no conclusive effect on risk of death, body weight, or immune response.[43][44]. [26] Pigs[27] and rabbits[28] can receive up to 10% of the feed and increase in the spirulina content in cattle resulted in increase in milk yield and weight. A. platensis is found in Africa and Asia, and A. maxima is found in Central America.1, 2 Free growing, spirulina exists only in high-salt alkaline water in subtropical and tropical areas, sometimes imparting a dark-green color to bodies of water.3 Spirulina is noted for its characteristic behavior in carbonated water and energetic growth in lab… The lipid content of spirulina is 8% by weight (table) providing the fatty acids, gamma-linolenic acid,[14][15] alpha-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, stearidonic acid,[16] eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid. [48] In 1999, Health Canada found that one sample of spirulina was microcystin-free. Spirulina, a blue-green algae (cyanophytes/cyanobacteria), grows as microscopic, corkscrew-shaped multicellular filaments and is now classified as a distinct genus, Arthrospira. [4] Spirulina doses of 10 to 19 grams per day over several months have been used safely. Dangeard studied the dihe samples and found it to be a dried puree of the spring form of the blue-green algae from the lake. A blue green algae, and highly nutritious. Supports general immune health* Supports mental and physical health* WHAT IS SPIRULINA WATER EXTRACT? Arthrospira species Arthrospira platensis Name Homonyms Spirulina platensis (Gomont) Geitler Common names 純頂螺旋藻 in language. Our culture is grown in our laboratories and it is concentrated prior to shipment.se Nutrient Formula. [1][47] If used chronically, liver damage may occur. Arthrospira (commercially known as Spirulina) is a filamentous cyanobacterium (Cyanophyta) with a long history of use as food in human nutrition. Arthrospira platensis. It is also used as a feed supplement in the aquaculture, aquarium, and poultry industries. Microalgae are microscopic. Spirulina is scientifically known as Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima. Spirulina contains around 60% protein in dry form. "Assessing potential health risks from microcystin toxins in blue-green algae dietary supplements", "Cyanobacterial Toxins in Drinking Water", "China's drug agency rejects state media claims of cover-up in lead found in health supplement", "Toxin content and cytotoxicity of algal dietary supplements", Ergocalciferol and Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Spirulina_(dietary_supplement)&oldid=991802527, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 22:10. [5] A. platensis occurs in Africa, Asia, and South America, whereas A. maxima is confined to Central America. [25] Increase in the spirulina content up to 40 g/kg (0.64 oz/lb) for 16 days in 21-day-old broiler male chicks, resulted in yellow and red coloration of flesh and this may be due to the accumulation of the yellow pigment, zeaxanthin. B. Spirulina is a biomass of cyanobacteria that can be consumed by humans and animals. It thrives best under pesticide-free conditions with plenty of sunlight and moderate temperature levels, but it is also highly adaptable, surviving even in extreme conditions. It is a source of antioxidants, strengthens the immune system and improves the tone and vitality of the body. [1][48], These toxic compounds are not produced by spirulina itself,[49] but may occur as a result of contamination of spirulina batches with other toxin-producing blue-green algae. Contents1 Healthy Dieting with Spirulina2 The Disease Fighter3 Removing Toxins4 How to Take Spirulina Spirulina is a simple one-celled microscopic blue-green algae with the scientific name Arthrospira platensis. More than 25,000 species of algae live everywhere - in water, in soils, on rocks, on plants. Common names in Spanish: Espirulina. The three species are Arthrospira platensis, A. fusiformis, and A. maxima. Characterization of Spirulina biomass for CELSS diet potential. Reference: UNAVA Proper Name(s): Arthrospira platensis Common Name(s): Spirulina Category: Approved Herbal Name. [2] Most cultivated spirulina is produced in open-channel raceway ponds, with paddle wheels used to agitate the water. You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. A. maxima is believed to be found in California and Mexico. Spirulina is a simple one-celled microscopic blue-green algae with the scientific name Arthrospira platensis. NHPID Name: Arthrospira platensis. It is commonly found all around the world making it one of the rare endemic strains of the Earth. Arthrospira platensis (strain NIES-39 / IAM M-135) (Spirulina platensis) When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so … Cultivation of cyanobacteria In its commercial use, the common name, Spirulina, refers to the dried biomass of the cyanobacterium, Arthrospira platensis , and is a whole product of biological origin. It can also be found in high salt concentrations because of its alkali and salt tolerance. The Chinese State Food and Drug Administration reported that lead, mercury, and arsenic contamination was widespread in spirulina supplements marketed in China. [4], According to the U.S. National Institutes of Health, scientific evidence is insufficient to recommend spirulina supplementation for any human condition, and more research is needed to clarify whether consumption yields any benefits. Hayashi T, et al. [12][13], Provided in its typical supplement form as a dried powder, a 100-g amount of spirulina supplies 290 kilocalories (1,200 kJ) and is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of numerous essential nutrients, particularly protein, B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin, providing 207%, 306%, and 85% DV, respectively), and dietary minerals, such as iron (219% DV) and manganese (90% DV) (table). Spirulina, or what was most likely Arthrospira, is a photosynthetic, filamentous, spiral- shaped, multicellular and blue-green microalga that has a long history of use as food. [4] Spirulina can be fed up to 10% for poultry [24] and less than 4% for quail. A. Under a microscope, spirulina appears as long, thin, blue-green spiral threads. [21][22] In a 2009 position paper on vegetarian diets, the American Dietetic Association stated that spirulina is not a reliable source of active vitamin B12. [1] Administration of spirulina has been investigated as a way to control glucose in people with diabetes, but the European Food Safety Authority rejected those claims in 2013. Workshop on artificial ecological systems, DARA-CNES, Marseille, France, October 24–26, 1990, "Spirulina in combating Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) and Protein Energy Wasting (PEW) - A review", "A Review on Culture, Production and Use of Spirulina as Food dor Humans and Feeds for Domestic Animals and Fish", "Spirulina: a luxury health food and a panacea for malnutrition", "Nutritional and therapeutic potential of Spirulina", "Fatty acids profile of Spirulina platensis grown under different temperatures and nitrogen concentrations", "Nutritional Evaluation of Australian Microalgae as Potential Human Health Supplements", "Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid production potential of microalgae and their heterotrophic growth", "Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian diets", "The nutritional value of dehydrated, blue-green algae (, "Effects of diets with increasing levels of, "Pigmentation of Cultured Striped Jack Reared on Diets Supplemented with the Blue-Green Alga Spirulina maxima", "Effects of probiotics and spirulina on survival and growth of juvenile common carp (, "Evaluation of the effects of feed attractants (, "A Systematic Review of Nutritional Supplementation in HIV-Infected Children in Resource-Limited Settings". The most common species are Spirulina maxima and Arthrospira platensis. Protein sets from fully sequenced genomes. M.D. Calcium spirulan, an inhibitor of enveloped virus replication, from a blue-green algae Spirulina platensis. The common name, spirulina, refers to the dried biomass of A. platensis, which belongs to the oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria that cover the groups Cyanobacteriaand Prochlorales. [10][11] Its advantage for food security is that it needs less land and water than livestock to produce protein and energy. Common name i-Synonym i: Spirulina platensis: Other names i ›Arthrospira platensis (Nordstedt) Gomont 1892 ›PCC 7345 ›Spirulina platensis (Gomont) Geitler 1925: Rank i: SPECIES: Lineage i TOP BENEFITS OF SPIRULINA EXTRACT. Help pages, FAQs, UniProtKB manual, documents, news archive and Biocuration projects. Figure 7: The effect of temperature on different strands of Arthrospira. [52], Spirulina contaminated with microcystins has various potential toxicity, especially to children,[53] including liver damage, shock and death. ("...0/10 samples of Spirulina contained microcystins. J Nat Prod 1996;59:83-7 Africans prepare a nutritious cake called “dihé”. In most industrial applications, Arthrospirais used under the common name “Spirulina”, which may be easier to pronounce and remember, and thus appear more suitable from a marketing point of view. Spirulina can be found in many freshwater environments, including ponds, lakes, and rivers. They are autotrophic, meaning that they are able to make their own food, and do not need a living energy or organic carbon source. Ocean microalgae, cal… [2], Arthrospira species are free-floating, filamentous cyanobacteria characterized by cylindrical, multicellular trichomes in an open left-handed helix. It is also an extremophile for pH, it does very well at pH ranges up to 10.5. Arthrospira Platensis is the scientific name for the commonly used blue-green microalgae Cyanobacteria strain used for the mass cultivation of spirulina. Among the various species included in the genus Arthrospira, A. platensis is the most widely distributed and is mainly found in Africa, but also in Asia. [21][23], Various studies on spirulina as an alternative feed for animal and aquaculture have been done. [4] The term spirulina remains in use for historical reasons. [48] The U.S. National Institutes of Health describes spirulina supplements as "possibly safe", provided they are free of microcystin contamination, but "likely unsafe" (especially for children) if contaminated. How is it used? Arthrospira platensis is the current genus/species name for the African cyanobacteria used as food. [47] Some spirulina supplements have been found to be contaminated with microcystins, albeit at levels below the limit set by the Oregon Health Department. It is a remarkable source of highly bioavailable protein and essential amino acids. They range in size from a single cell to giant kelp over 150 feet long.



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, The European Molecular Biology Laboratory, State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation, ›Arthrospira platensis (Nordstedt) Gomont 1892. [17] In contrast to those 2003 estimates (of DHA and EPA each at 2 to 3% of total fatty acids), 2015 research indicated that spirulina products "contained no detectable omega-3 fatty acids" (less than 0.1%, including DHA and EPA). Common Names. The Aztec civilization used it as an important foodstuff. Spirulina is a biomass of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that can be consumed by humans and animals. S. Spirulina; Media in category "Arthrospira" The following 2 files are in this category, out of 2 total. Indeed some populations near the Lake Chad have been eating Arthrospira platensis since old times (Santillan, 1982). Spirulina is commonly consumed by humans and animals and its blue pigment phycocyanin has medicinal and biotechnology value. [9], During 1964 and 1965, the botanist Jean Leonard confirmed that dihe is made up of spirulina, and later studied a bloom of algae in a sodium hydroxide production facility. A report by a botanist, Jean Léonard, who was a member of a French-Belgian expedition to Africa, described a blue-green cake sold in the food market of Fort Lamy, Chad. Its inclusion with the phylum Cyanobacteria as seen in Figure 2 indicates that A. platensis has a characteristic blue-green color (giving the prefix "cyano-") based on the wavelengths of light that it is able to absorb. [2], The species A. maxima and A. platensis were once classified in the genus Spirulina. Spirulina (Arthrospira Platensis) Spirulina Benefits. Scientifically, a distinction exists between spirulina and the genus Arthrospira. Spirulina is a spiral shaped micro-algae (Cyanobacterium) that thrives only on alkaline waters. Ayehunie S, et al. [19], Spirulina contains no vitamin B12 naturally (see table), and spirulina supplements are not considered to be a reliable source of vitamin B12, as they contain predominantly pseudovitamin B12 (Coα-[α-(7-adenyl)]-Coβ-cyanocobamide),[20] which is biologically inactive in humans. with Europe’s new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) that applies since 25 May 2018. It belongs to the Phormidiaceae family and is often referred to as algae and blue-green algae. [1], Cornet J.F., Dubertret G. "The cyanobacterium Spirulina in the photosynthetic compartment of the MELISSA artificial ecosystem." [1] The effects of chronic exposure to even low levels of microcystins are a concern due to the risk of toxicity to several organ systems. Spirulina, or what was most likely Arthrospira, was rediscovered in the mid-1960s. [51] One study reported the presence of lead up to 5.1 ppm in a sample from a commercial supplement. [5], Spirulina thrives at a pH around 8.5 and above, which will get more alkaline, and a temperature around 30 Â°C (86 Â°F). Species of Arthrospira have been isolated from alkaline brackish and saline waters in tropical and subtropical regions. Systems used to automatically annotate proteins with high accuracy: Select one of the options below to target your search: Select item(s) and click on "Add to basket" to create your own collection here (400 entries max). Arthrospira platensis has been found in environments with high concentrations of carbonate and bicarbonate. The dihe is used to make broths for meals, and also sold in markets. Just to set the record straight its KLAM-ATH. Macroalgae are large like seaweeds. A. platensis is labeled as SPL-2 (Vonshak, 1997). Spirulina is the common name of the colonial blue-green algae Arthrospira Platensis. Spirulina is … About the Algae: Spirulina is the common name of the cyanobacteria Arthrospira plantensis.. 2), by a European scientific mission, and is now widely cultured throughout the world. It is commonly found all around the world making it one of the rare endemic strains of the Earth. [1] Given the lack of regulatory standards in the U.S., some public-health researchers have raised the concern that consumers cannot be certain that spirulina and other blue-green algae supplements are free of contamination. While many bacteria are known for their pathogenic effects, A. platensis is primarily known across the world for its potential nutrit… COMMON NAME. Spirulina is a blue-green algae that grows wild in alkaline volcanic lakes. [5], Spirulina was found in abundance at Lake Texcoco by French researchers in the 1960s, but no reference to its use by the Aztecs as a daily food source was made after the 16th century, probably because of the draining of the surrounding lakes for agriculture and urban development. Organism - Arthrospira platensis. Growth conditions. [1] It is also used as a feed supplement in the aquaculture, aquarium, and poultry industries. Spirulina can be found in many […] Arthrospira Platensis Mass Cultivation of Freshwater Microalgae. Historically mistaken for Eukaryotes, a type of fungi, it is a non-toxic species of cyanobacteria with a wide array of medical, nutritional, and commercial value. Spirulina | Spirulina Water Extract. [29] Spirulina as an alternative feedstock and immune booster for big-mouth buffalo,[29] milk fish,[30] cultured striped jack,[31] carp,[32][33] red sea bream,[34] tilapia,[35] catfish,[36] yellow tail,[37] zebrafish,[38] shrimp,[39][40] and abalone[41] was established[4] and up to 2% spirulina per day in aquaculture feed can be safely recommended. Guiry in … Spirulina Nutrients Formula Spirulina is the common name for human and animal food supplements produced primarily from two species of cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae): Arthrospira platensis, and Arthrospira maxima.These and other Arthrospira species were once classified in the genus Spirulina. It is also an extremophile for pH, it does very well at pH ranges up to 10.5. [10], Dried spirulina contains 5% water, 24% carbohydrates, 8% fat, and about 60% (51–71%) protein (table). It is known by the scientific name, ‘Arthrospira platensis’.